"...the main purpose of criticism...is not to make its readers agree, nice as that is, but to make them, by whatever orthodox or unorthodox method, think." - John Simon

"The great enemy of clear language is insincerity." - George Orwell

Monday, June 16, 2008


Watching Stripes (1981) again after all these years makes me nostalgic for the early comedies of the first generation of Saturday Night Live cast members: Animal House (1978), Caddyshack (1980), Fletch (1984), and so on. They were goofy and silly but they also had an engaging, anarchistic attitude that is so much fun to watch. This is definitely the case with Stripes, a film that pits a “lost and restless generation,” as the film’s main protagonist (Bill Murray) puts it at one point, against rigid authority that is only interested in producing, lean, mean, killing machines, to paraphrase another character. Much of the film’s humor comes from the clash of these two ideologies.

After losing his job, his girlfriend, and his apartment all in one morning (“You still have your health,” deadpans his best friend), John Winger (Murray) decides to enlist in the Army and straighten out his life. He convinces his best friend Russell Zisky (Harold Ramis) to enlist as well. “If I get killed, my blood is on your hands,” he says, to which John replies, “Just don’t get it on my shoes.” Once they arrive at the base and meet their no-nonsense drill instructor, Sergeant Hulka (the perfectly cast Warren Oates), John and Russell realize that it’s not going to be as easy as they imagined.

Stripes settles into a classic fish-out-of-water formula as John and his misfit platoon (with the likes of John Candy and Judge Reinhold) gradually become efficient soldiers despite their complete ineptitude and perchance for breaking all the rules. The gang of misfits fulfills all the requisite stereotypes: “Cruiser” (John Diehl) is the dumb guy, “Ox” (Candy) is the lovable oversized oaf, “Psycho” (Conrad Dunn) is the crazy guy, and, of course, John is the group joker and self-proclaimed leader. Other conventions include casual nudity (Ox wrestles three strippers in a mud wrestling contest) and the obligatory love interests as John and Russell get involved with two cute, female MPs (P.J. Soles and Sean Young). This template would prove to be so successful that it was exploited in films like Police Academy (1984), PCU (1994) and countless others.

Director Ivan Reitman came up with the idea for the film just before the premiere of Meatballs (1979) in Toronto: “I felt like it was time for another service comedy. We were in peaceful times, it was post-Vietnam, and I thought it would be great to have some comedic look at the Army that would not be another protest movie.” To that end, at the premier he pitched “Cheech and Chong join the Army” to Paramount Pictures and, incredibly, they greenlit the project that day.

Len Blum and Dan Goldberg wrote the screenplay in Toronto and read it to Reitman (who was in Los Angeles) over the phone. He gave them notes. Reitman gave the script to Cheech and Chong’s manager and he read it. He thought it was very funny and gave it to the comedians but they wanted complete control. Reitman then suggested to Goldberg that they change the two main characters to ones suited for Bill Murray and Harold Ramis, figuring that if they could get Ramis interested in it and let him tailor the script for the two of them that Murray would be interested in doing the film. It worked and Murray signed on to do the film.

Ramis had already co-written Animal House and Meatballs but was unknown as an actor. He screen-tested for Columbia Pictures, who hated his audition but Reitman told the studio that he was hiring him anyway. Judge Reinhold’s character, Elmo, ended up with a collection of all the best jokes from the Cheech and Chong version of the film. Before filming he thought that he had a handle on his character but once filming started, he was “petrified” because this was his first big studio film. The casting agent picked Sean Young based on how she looked and P.J. Soles tested with Ramis and they got along very well together. John Diehl had never auditioned before and this was his first paying acting job. Goldberg knew John Candy from Toronto and told Reitman that he should be in the film. He didn’t even have to audition.

Reitman contacted the United States Army for assistance, requesting a location to film the basic training scenes and they gave him 3-4 environments. He chose Fort Knox in Kentucky for its nearby proximity to Louisville for the city scenes and the forested areas at the base that would double for some scenes set in Czechoslovakia. He then sent writers Leo Blum and Goldberg to the base for six weeks to research and get anecdotes from stationed soldiers there. The Army was very accommodating, providing over a thousand soldiers and several vehicles for the background of scenes, giving the film an authenticity.

One of the reasons why Stripes is my favorite Bill Murray comedy are the little touches that he adds to a scene that makes it that much funnier. For example, in the first scene where John goes to pay a guy after getting a shoe shine, Murray turns his back to the man so that he won’t see how much of a tip he’s going to give him. It’s an odd, idiosyncratic choice that no one else would’ve thought to make but it enriches the scene ever so slightly. The next scene demonstrates Murray’s gift for physical comedy when he loads a snotty rich lady’s luggage into the trunk of his cab and accidentally bags himself. It’s an obvious gag to be sure but Murray still makes it funny.

John continues to antagonize the lady (Fran Ryan) during the ride to the airport but in a deadpan, sardonic way. At one point she says, “I’ve never gone this way before,” to which he replies, “I’m sure there’s a lot of ways that I’ve gone that you haven’t.,” implying that she’s square and conservative while he’s hip and liberated, thereby establishing a clear generational gap. The rich lady insults John and so instead of getting angry at her he decides to mess with her, including one memorable bit where he starts driving fast. Suddenly alarmed, she says, “Aren’t you going too fast?” He replies, intentionally slurring his words, “Oh, it’s not the speed, really so much, I just wish I hadn’t drunk all that cough syrup.” John proceeds to give the lady a little scare but when she calls him a bum, he’s had enough and quits right in the middle of a bridge, throwing his car keys in a river and leaving her stranded.

It’s not until almost eight minutes into the film that Elmer Bernstein’s first musical cue appears and it is a slightly sad, whimsical tune. The scene where John’s girlfriend Anita (Roberta Leighton) leaves him is interesting because it straddles the line between comedy and drama. She is clearly unhappy with their relationship and he tries to deflect her complaints with humor before half-heartedly saying, “I’m part of a lost and restless generation,” and follows this up asking her a rhetorical question, “What do you want me to do, run for the Senate?” This scene underlines John’s dilemma – he lacks direction and any kind of motivation. Interestingly, no music plays during this scene so that the gravitas of it, if you will, is not undermined by manipulative music. Bernstein’s whimsical score only returns when Russell arrives and the two banter back and forth about John’s sorry state of affairs.

The chemistry between Murray and Ramis is excellent. The latter is the perfect straight man to the former’s smart-ass slacker. They had been friends and worked together for some years and play well off each other as evident in the scene where Russell bets John that he can’t do five push-ups. It is in this scene that John realizes that he’s in crap physical shape and that the army is his only hope in turning his life around. Every scene had some element of improvisation and this was due in large part to Murray and Ramis who suggested things for him to say and this spread to the other cast members. Stripes is quite possibly Murray’s best comedy. He was on his way to becoming a big movie star (he had already conquered T.V. with SNL and a scene-stealing turn in Caddyshack) and applied the comedic chops he honed on T.V. to this role. Murray has a way of delivering dialogue and being able to give certain lines a sarcastic delivery or add a look or a facial expression that makes what he says so funny.

Reitman was a fan of westerns that Warren Oates had been in and wanted someone who was strong and that everyone respected to control the misfit platoon. Reinhold said that during filming, Oates would tell everyone stories about working on films like The Wild Bunch (1969) and they would be enthralled. The casting of Oates, the veteran of many Sam Peckinpah films, gives Stripes a dose of gravitas and provides a certain amount of tension in some of the scenes he has with Murray. Sgt. Hulka is the ideal antagonist for the anti-authoritative John and their scene together in the barracks’ washroom, where Hulka asserts his authority, is filled with a palpable tension — unusual for a comedy but it works. Reitman wanted “a little bit of weight in the center,” and have a real argument between Hulka and Winger. It wasn’t played for laughs and allowed Murray to do something he hadn’t done before.

The improvisational nature of Reitman and some of the cast, however, did not impress an old school actor like Oates. During one of the days of filming the obstacle course scenes, Reitman told the actors to grab Oates and drag him into the mud without telling the veteran actor about it in order to see what would happen in the hopes of getting a genuine reaction. Oates’ chipped his front tooth and was understandably pissed at Reitman, yelling at the director for what he did.

The film’s not-so secret weapon and scene stealer is John Candy as the lovable Ox. For example, the scene where he introduces himself to the rest of the platoon is quite funny. Candy portrays Ox as an earnest guy who wants to lose weight while Russell, in the background, reacts hilariously to what he’s saying. Candy also excelled at physical comedy as evident in the scene where Ox mud wrestles several scantily-clad women. At first, they get the upper hand on him and he’s afraid to hurt them, but after a pep talk from Winger and invoking the spirit of Curly from the Three Stooges, Ox bests six women at once! Initially, Candy wasn’t sure he wanted to do the film. “The original character didn’t look like much but Ivan said we could change it and I could do some writing. Everything fell together and we realized it could be a lot of fun.” That being said, Candy was not crazy about doing the mud wrestling scene, feeling that it was sexist and made him look bad. Co-star Dave Thomas remembers, “He was like, ‘Hey, I’ve got a lot more to offer than this. Don’t make me wrestle nude women in a mud tub.’” Reitman and Ramis managed to convince Candy to film the scene.

If Stripes has any weaknesses it is in the last third of the film where the platoon, fresh from a successful graduation parade, is trapped in an Eastern Bloc country (remember, the Cold War was still in full swing at this point) looking for John and Russell after they took off with the army’s top secret armored recreational vehicle (the uber Winnebago). This part of the movie feels forced and tacked on. It just isn’t as strong or as funny as everything that came before it. However, the first two thirds of the film are so good that not even this hurts the picture all that much.

The film was actually fairly well-received by critics. Roger Ebert in his Chicago Sun-Times review praised Stripes as "an anarchic slob movie, a celebration of all that is irreverent, reckless, foolhardy, undisciplined, and occasionally scatological. It's a lot of fun." Janet Maslin of The New York Times called it "a lazy but amiable comedy" and praised Murray for achieving "a sardonically exaggerated calm that can be very entertaining.” However, Gary Arnold, in his review for the Washington Post, wrote, "Stripes squanders at least an hour belaboring situations contradicted from the outset by Murray's personality. The premise and star remain out of whack until the rambling, diffuse screenplay finally struggles beyond basic training." Looking back on the film after many years Murray said, "I'm still a little queasy that I actually made a movie where I carry a machine gun. But I felt if you were rescuing your friends it was okay. It wasn't Reds or anything, but it captured what it was like on an Army base: It was cold, you had to wear the same green clothes, you had to do a lot of physical stuff, you got treated pretty badly, and had bad coffee.”

Only during a time when the United States wasn’t at war with anyone (unless you count the Cold War), does joining the army to improve your life seem like an option if you’re reasonably educated as John and Russell are in Stripes. One gets the feeling that they could have easily had a productive life in almost any walk of life if they only applied themselves. Joining the army on a whim doesn’t seem that funny in our current climate which does date the film somewhat. Regardless, the script is filled with tons of witty dialogue and funny gags, the cast is uniformly excellent, and Murray and Ramis have never been better. At the risk of falling back on an old cliché, they just don’t make comedies like this anymore.


De Semlyen, Nick. Wild and Crazy Guys: How the Comedy Mavericks of the ‘80s Changed Hollywood Forever. Broadway Books. 2020.

Gillis, Michael. "Stars and Stripes." Stripes Special Edition DVD. Columbia Pictures. 2006
Knelman, Martin. Laughing on the Outside: The Life of John Candy. St. Martin’s Press. 1997.

Meyers, Kate. "Hail Murray." Entertainment Weekly. March 19, 1993.

Pilgrim, Eric. “’That’s a fact, Jack!’ Stripes creators celebrate 40th anniversary of Fort Knox-based classic.” Official Homepage of the United States Army. June 25, 2021.


  1. Excellent breakdown of a film most people (myself included) probably wouldn't bother to break down into such detail.

    It's a favorite comedy of mine as well, though one that gets forgotten from time to time, as it is (thankfully) not played to death on cable. It really is Murray at or near the apex of his comedic powers, though, and the bit players and script are fantastic throughout much of it.

    I agree that the third act is weak, turning into action too much and too soon. I guess they felt a need for a big climax. Still, as you said, it hardly blemishes the film as a whole.

    Now I just have to get the theme song outta my head...

  2. Fletch:

    Thanks for the comments! I agree, that is Murray at the height of his comedic chops (along with GHOSTBUSTERS) but, as you point out, he ably supported by a great collection of character actors, including Ramis, John Candy (who steals every scene he's in), Judge Reinhold (who woulda thought?), and John Larroquette to name a few. They all get their moments to their thing and really hit it out of the park. I also like the inclusion of a few SCTV players like Dave Thomas (in the mud wrestling scene) and Joe Flaherty (one of the Czech border guards).

    The third act doesn't bother me as much it used to but I think it seems to weak because everything that came before it is so strong. It almost feels like they ran out of material and tacked it on to pad out the running time of the film.

  3. Good call on one of the best comedies of the 80's. Great blog you have here- with a Vanishing Point banner and a book on Michael Mann on the way, we have pretty similar tastes. THIEF is my favorite of his, but he hasn't made a bad film. THE KEEP gets a bad rap for deviating from the silly book, but I prefer it to the novel.

  4. Tommy:

    Thanks for the compliments! Yeah, I love pretty much everything Mann's done. While THE KEEP is certainly not my favorite film in the world, it certainly isn't the worst. Altho, I'd love to see Mann release a Director's Cut as I've heard that he had to cut it down.

    THIEF is a great film to be sure, altho, THE INSIDER is, hands down, my fave of Mann's.

  5. Another favorite of mine and one of the funniest films ever. Bill is remarkable in it and damn how cute are Sean Young and PJ Soles...and of course Warren Oates. It really is one of those films I never tire of...

  6. Jeremy:

    I couldn't agree more! And yeah, between this film and ROCK 'N' ROLL HIGH SCHOOL, I had a major crush on P.J. Soles. And, of course, she was excellent in HALLOWEEN.

    And yes, good ol' Warren Oates. God bless him, he was cast so well as the hard-ass drill instructor. He certainly played well off of Murray and co.